Smart Parking Systems: Reviewing the Literature, Architecture and Ways Forward

Can Biyik*, Zaheer Allam, Gabriele Pieri, Davide Moroni, Muftah O'Fraifer, Eoin O'Connell, Stephan Olariu, Muhammad Khalid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


The Internet of Things (IoT) has come of age, and complex solutions can now be implemented seamlessly within urban governance and management frameworks and processes. For cities, growing rates of car ownership are rendering parking availability a challenge and lowering the quality of life through increased carbon emissions. The development of smart parking solutions is thus necessary to reduce the time spent looking for parking and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The principal role of this research paper is to analyze smart parking solutions from a technical perspective, underlining the systems and sensors that are available, as documented in the literature. The review seeks to provide comprehensive insights into the building of smart parking solutions. A holistic survey of the current state of smart parking systems should incorporate the classification of such systems as big vehicular detection technologies. Finally, communication modules are presented with clarity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-642
Number of pages20
JournalSmart Cities
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2021


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