In this chapter, we first sketch a historic picture by introducing health and environment from the perspective of some classical scholars of social science: Malthus, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. Main issues being raised in this respect are the relation between the natural and the social, human world on the one hand and the epistemological debate on objectivity and truth on the other. After the historical roots, we introduce modern developments in health and environment in order to sketch the background for modern social science's involvement in the field. Departing from the industrial revolution as a major turning point, we focus on issues of globalization, population growth and other developments in health and environment conditions. Finally, we introduce modern social science's involvement in health and environment. Subsequently the sub disciplines of environmental sociology, ecology of health, ecological sociology, environmental health and medical anthropology will be briefly introduced.