The literature on technology transfer has focussed on North-South transfer and has analysed transfer as a largely technical process. This is despite the increasing influence of rising powers in technology transfer, specifically in the area of energy generation. China is an important player in this field. This article has two aims: firstly, it adds to the small but emerging literature on South-South technology transfer by exploring the role of Chinese actors, using the Bui dam in Ghana as a case study. Secondly, the article develops an expanded notion of technology transfer by arguing that technology transfer is not only a technical process, but it is inherently political as it includes crucial issues on decision-making regarding the type of technology that is transferred, who is granted access to the decision-making process, and who benefits from the new technology. In examining technology transfer from this perspective, the article draws on the sociology of technologies approach and the sustainable transitions literature arguing that technology transfer is a contested process that takes place within complex political, economic, social and cultural settings and actor networks. This determines the technology that is transferred, who benefits most, and who is marginalized in the process.