Spectral and Energy Efficiency of IRS-Assisted MISO Communication with Hardware Impairments

Shaoqing Zhou, Wei Xu, Kezhi Wang, Marco Di Renzo, Mohamed-Slim Alouini

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

135 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


In this letter, we analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink system with hardware impairments. An extended error vector magnitude (EEVM) model is utilized to characterize the impact of radio-frequency (RF) impairments at the access point (AP) and phase noise is considered at the IRS. We show that the spectral efficiency is limited due to the hardware impairments even when the numbers of AP antennas and IRS elements grow infinitely large, which is in contrast with the conventional case with ideal hardware. Moreover, the performance degradation at high SNR is shown to be mainly affected by the AP hardware impairments rather than by the phase noise at the IRS. We further obtain in closed form the optimal transmit power for energy efficiency maximization. Simulation results are provided to verify the obtained results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9079457
Pages (from-to)1366-1369
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Issue number9
Early online date27 Apr 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


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