Spectral and Energy Efficiency of IRS-Assisted MISO Communication with Hardware Impairments

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle



  • Shaoqing Zhou
  • Wei Xu
  • Kezhi Wang
  • Marco Di Renzo
  • Mohamed-Slim Alouini

External departments

  • Southeast University
  • Université Paris-Saclay
  • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology


Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Early online date27 Apr 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Apr 2020
Publication type

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this letter, we analyze the spectral and energy efficiency of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink system with hardware impairments. An extended error vector magnitude (EEVM) model is utilized to characterize the impact of radio-frequency (RF) impairments at the access point (AP) and phase noise is considered for the imperfect IRS. We show that the spectral efficiency is limited due to the hardware impairments even when the numbers of AP antennas and IRS elements grow infinitely large, which is in contrast with the conventional case with ideal hardware. Moreover, the performance degradation at high SNR is shown to be mainly affected by the AP hardware impairments rather than the phase noise of IRS. We further obtain in closed form the optimal transmit power for energy efficiency maximization. Simulation results are provided to verify the obtained results.

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