State-of-the-Art Assessment of Smart Charging and Vehicle 2 Grid services

Ghanim Putrus, Richard Kotter, Yue Wang, Ridoy Das, Edward Bentley, Xuewu Dai, Geoffrey O'Brien, Renee Heller, Ramesh Prateek, Rebecca Gough , Bert Herteleer

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Electro-mobility – especially when coupled smartly with a decarbonised grid and also renewable distributed local energy generation, has an imperative role to play in reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating the effects of climate change. In parallel, the regulatory framework continues to set new and challenging targets for greenhouse gas emissions and urban air pollution. • EVs can help to achieve environmental targets because they are beneficial in terms of reduced GHG emissions although the magnitude of emission reduction really depends on the carbon intensity of the national energy mix, zero air pollution, reduced noise, higher energy efficiency and capable of integration with the electric grid, as discussed in Chapter 1. • Scenarios to limit global warming have been developed based on the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and these set the EV deployment targets or ambitions mentioned in Chapter 2. • Currently there is a considerable surge in electric cars purchasing with countries such as China, the USA, Norway, The Netherlands, France, the UK and Sweden leading the way with an EV market share over 1%. • To enable the achievement of these targets, charging infrastructures need to be deployed in parallel: there are four modes according to IEC 61851, as presented in Chapter 2.1.4.
• The targets for SEEV4City project are as follow: o Increase energy autonomy in SEEV4-City sites by 25%, as compared to the baseline case. o Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 150 Tonnes annually and change to zero emission kilometres in the SEEV4-City Operational Pilots. o Avoid grid related investments (100 million Euros in 10 years) by introducing large scale adoption of smart charging and storage services and make existing electrical grids compatible with an increase in electro mobility and local renewable energy production. • The afore-mentioned objectives are achieved by applying Smart Charging (SC) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technologies within Operational Pilots at different levels:
o Household. o Street. o Neighbourhood. o City. • SEEV4City aims to develop the concept of 'Vehicle4Energy Services' into a number of sustainable business models to integrate electric vehicles and renewable energy within a Sustainable Urban Mobility and Energy Plan (SUMEP), as introduced in Chapter 1. With this aim in mind, this project fills the gaps left by previous or currently running projects, as reviewed in Chapter 6. • The business models will be developed according to the boundaries of the six Operational Pilots, which involve a disparate number of stakeholders which will be considered within them.
• Within every scale, the relevant project objectives need to be satisfied and a study is made on the Public, Social and Private Economics of Smart Charging and V2G. • In order to accomplish this work, a variety of aspects need to be investigated: o Chapter 3 provides details about revenue streams and costs for business models and Economics of Smart Charging and V2G. o Chapter 4 focuses on the definition of Energy Autonomy, the variables and the economy behind it; o Chapter 5 talks about the impacts of EV charging on the grid, how to mitigate them and offers solutions to defer grid investments; o Chapter 7 introduces a number of relevant business models and considers the Economics of Smart Charging and V2G; o Chapter 8 discusses policy frameworks, and gives insight into CO2 emissions and air pollution; o Chapter 9 defines the Data Collection approach that will be interfaced with the models; o Chapter 10 discusses the Energy model and the simulation platforms that may be used for project implementation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages350
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2020

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