Safety and health in the raw rubber processing activity has been a neglected subject, though this sector is still a major foreign exchange contributor to the national economy in Sri Lanka. The rubber industry in the Sri Lanka employs many thousands of people and as it is a heavy industry, it poses a number of safety and health risks to workers employed in that sector. Occupational safety and health concerns in raw rubber processing organisations have always been and continue to be of the utmost importance. Often the impact of serious workplace injuries overshadows the damage associated with illnesses which may be linked to workplace exposures. Thus, establishing and strengthening of the safety culture is most critical in raw rubber processing environments with a high risk of health and safety concerns. The cause analysis for failings related to safety culture in raw rubber processing activity are varied and far reaching; with each issue coming into play at one critical point in time. However, most of the weaknesses are related with ‘Human factors: How people feel (Heart and Mind)’, ‘What people do (Daily Action)’. Thus, developing of human capacities such as attitudes, behaviours, skills and knowledge etc. on this perspective will be an effective tool in addressing those failures and strengthening the safety culture in raw rubber processing activity. This paper therefore aims to develop a conceptual framework for strengthening the safety culture in raw rubber processing activity through human capacity building. A comprehensive literature review was used as the research methodology for this paper. Research findings illustrated that yet, like in any other employment sector, workers involved in raw rubber processing activity run an equal if not higher risk of being injured as a result of the type of work they do. Due to management and worker ignorance and rubber products manufacturing chemicals and bad work practices in some factories, serious hazards have been created and many accidents have occurred. Strengthening the safety culture is about more than removing hazards and establishing safety procedures. It is about working with people of the organisation to change their attitudes, behaviours and thoughts, and improve their situational awareness. The finding of this research incorporated into a conceptual framework which proposes a better working condition so that the safety culture can be strengthen.