A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of six representative streptomycetes isolated from an alkaline soil adjacent to a meteoric alkaline soda lake in India. Chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties of the isolates were consistent with their classification in the genus Streptomyces. The isolates formed extensively branched substrate mycelia and aerial hyphae that differentiated in straight chains of spores with smooth surfaces. They contained LL-diaminopimelic acid in the wall peptidoglycan, produced either hexa- or octa-hydrogenated menaquinones with nine isoprene units, major amounts of saturated, iso- and anteiso- fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine as the characteristic polar lipid. The isolates grew well at 30 °C, pH 9 and in the presence of 3 to 5% (w/v) sodium chloride. Isolates OF1T, OF3 and OF8 formed a distinct clade within the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree sharing relatively high sequence similarities with the type strains of Streptomyces durbertensis (99.3%), Streptomyces palmae (98.1%) and Streptomyces xinghaiensis (98.3%), but can be distinguished from them using combinations of phenotypic properties. A phylogenomic tree based on draft genome sequences of the isolates and S. durbertensis DSM 104538T confirmed the phylogenetic relationships. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values calculated from the whole genome sequences of isolate OF1T and S. durbertensis DSM 104538T were low at 92.0% and 45.2%, respectively, indicating that they belong to different genomic species. Consequently, on the basis of the genomic, phylogenetic and associated phenotypic data it is proposed that isolates OF1T, OF3 and OF8 be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces alkaliterrae sp. nov. with strain OF1T (NCIMB 15195T =PCM 3001T) as the type strain. Isolates IF11, IF17 and IF19, and S. alkaliphilus DSM 42118T were shown to belong to the same taxospecies and together with S. calidiresistens DSM 42108T comprised a well supported clade in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate IF17 and S. alkaliphilus DSM 42118T formed a well-supported clade in the phylogenomic tree, had almost identical digital G + C similarity values, produced long straight chains of smooth-surfaced spores and shared ANI and dDDH values (98.0 and 79.6%, respectively) consistent with their assignment to the same genomic species. In light of all of the data isolates IF11, IF17 and IF19 should be seen as authentic stains of S. alkalihilus. Data acquired in the present study have also been used to emend the descriptions of S. alkaliphilus, S. calidiresistens and S. durbertensis. The genomes of isolates IF17, and OF1T, OF3 and OF8 contain relatively high numbers of biosynthetic gene clusters some of which were discontinously distributed indicating ones predicted to express for novel specialised metabolites.