A novel method for analysing structural health of alumina nanocomposites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black nano-particles (CB) is presented. All nanocomposites were prepared using novel colloidal processing and then by Spark Plasma Sintering. Good homogeneous dispersion was observed for all carbon filled materials. Nanocomposite bars were indented to produce sub-surface damage. Change in electrical conductivities were analysed after indentation to understand structural damage. For correlating change in electrical conductivity and indentation damage and understanding damage tolerance, mechanical properties were compared. Because of the systematically induced indentation damage, a sharp decrease of 86% was observed in the electrical conductivity of CNT nanocomposite as compared to 69% and 27% in the electrical conductivities of GNP nanocomposites and CB nanocomposites respectively. CNTs impart superior damage sensing capability in alumina nanocomposites, in comparison to GNP and CB, due to their fibrous nature, high aspect ratio and high electrical conductivity.