Subjective and Objective Measures of Dryness Symptoms in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: Capturing the Discrepancy

UK Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry, Oriana M. Bezzina, Peter Gallagher, Sheryl Mitchell, Simon J. Bowman, Bridget Griffiths, Victoria Hindmarsh, Ben Hargreaves, Elizabeth J. Price, Colin T. Pease, Paul Emery, Peter Lanyon, Michele Bombardieri, Nurhan Sutcliffe, Costantino Pitzalis, John Hunter, Monica Gupta, John McLaren, Anne M. Cooper, Marian ReganIan P. Giles, David A. Isenberg, Vadivelu Saravanan, David Coady, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Neil J. McHugh, Steven A. Young-Min, Robert J. Moots, Nagui Gendi, Mohammed Akil, Kirsten MacKay, W. Fai Ng, Lucy J. Robinson*, Elalaine C. Bacabac, Robert Moots, Kuntal Chakravarty, Shamin Lamabadusuriya, Constantino Pitzalis, Rashidat Adeniba, John Hamburger, Andrea Richards, Saaeha Rauz, Sue Brailsford, Joanne Logan, Diarmuid Mulherin, Jacqueline Andrews, Alison McManus, Colin Pease, Alison Booth, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Katherine James

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
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Objective: To develop a novel method for capturing the discrepancy between objective tests and subjective dryness symptoms (a sensitivity scale) and to explore predictors of dryness sensitivity. 

Methods: Archive data from the UK Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry (n = 688) were used. Patients were classified on a scale from −5 (stoical) to +5 (sensitive) depending on the degree of discrepancy between their objective and subjective symptoms classes. Sensitivity scores were correlated with demographic variables, disease-related factors, and symptoms of pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. 

Results: Patients were on average relatively stoical for both types of dryness symptoms (mean ± SD ocular dryness −0.42 ± 2.2 and −1.24 ± 1.6 oral dryness). Twenty-seven percent of patients were classified as sensitive to ocular dryness and 9% to oral dryness. Hierarchical regression analyses identified the strongest predictor of ocular dryness sensitivity to be self-reported pain and that of oral dryness sensitivity to be self-reported fatigue. 

Conclusion: Ocular and oral dryness sensitivity can be classified on a continuous scale. The 2 symptom types are predicted by different variables. A large number of factors remain to be explored that may impact symptom sensitivity in primary Sjögrenʼs syndrome, and the proposed method could be used to identify relatively sensitive and stoical patients for future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1714-1723
Number of pages10
JournalArthritis Care and Research
Issue number11
Early online date9 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes


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