Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in MDMA ('ecstasy') users

Tom Heffernan, Jonathan Ling, Andrew Scholey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic use of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), or 'ecstasy', is associated with significant cognitive impairments, particularly in laboratory and field tests of memory for previously encoded material. Less is known about the effects of a history of MDMA use on aspects of everyday cognitive functioning-of which prospective memory (typically characterised as 'remembering to do something at some future point') is an important aspect. Self-ratings of prospective memory among 30 regular ecstasy users (taking the drug 10 or more times per month) and 31 ecstasy-free controls were compared. Each participant completed the Prospective Memory Questionnaire, which measures self-rated error frequencies relating to three aspects of prospective memory (short-term habitual, long-term episodic and internally cued); the scale also records the use of strategies to aid remembering. Compared with non-users, ecstasy users reported significantly more self-rated errors in prospective memory, and effect which was evident after co-varying levels of other drug use. There were no significant differences in the use of strategies to aid memory. These findings provide new insights into prospective memory dysfunction in recreational drug users. Prospective memory deficits may be related to the reported serotonergic and frontal lobe deficits in chronic MDMA users. It is necessary to use more objective tasks to assess putative prospective memory deficits in ecstasy users.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-344
JournalHuman Psychopharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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