A multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on a taper-coupled microbottle resonator is proposed and investigated experimentally. The taper-coupled microbottle resonator has the comb filter characteristics with Q factor 2.9 × 104, which is integrated into an EDFL system. The taper-coupled microbottle resonator was packaged by ultraviolet glue, which has excellent stability of output power and wavelength at room temperature. Then, switchable dual-, triple-, quad- and quint-wavelength fiber laser states can be achieved by adjusting the polarization controller (PC). Furthermore, for dual-wavelength and triple-wavelength laser state, the position of output wavelengths also can be precisely modulated with the PC. The developed multi-wavelength EDFL has the optical signal to noise ratio as high as 40 dBm, and the wavelength shift and peak power fluctuation are less than 0.03 nm and 6 dBm.