The 2024 French guidelines for scenario design in simulation-based education: manikin-based immersive simulation, simulated participant-based immersive simulation and procedural simulation

Guillaume Der Sahakian*, Maxime de Varenne, Clément Buléon, Guillaume Alinier, Christian Balmer, Antonia Blanié, Bertrand Bech, Anne Bellot, Hamdi Boubaker, Nadège Dubois, Francisco Guevara, Erwan Guillouet, Jean Claude Granry, Morgan Jaffrelot, François Lecomte, Fernande Lois, Mohammed Mouhaoui, Ollivier Ortolé, Méryl Paquay, Justine PiazzaMarie Pittaco, Patrick Plaisance, Dan Benhamou, Gilles Chiniara, Etienne Rivière*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Simulation-based education in healthcare encompasses a wide array of modalities aimed at providing realistic clinical experiences supported by meticulously designed scenarios. The French-speaking Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SoFraSimS) has developed guidelines to assist educators in the design of scenarios for manikin- or simulated participant- based immersive simulation and procedural simulation, the three mainly used modalities. Methods: After establishing a French-speaking group of experts within the SoFraSimS network, we performed an extensive literature review with theory-informed practices and personal experiences. We used this approach identify the essential criteria for practice-based scenario design within the three simulation modalities. Results: We present three comprehensive templates for creating innovative scenarios and simulation sessions, each tailored to the specific characteristics of a simulation modality. The SoFraSimS templates include five sections distributed between the three modalities. The first section contextualizes the scenario by describing the practicalities of the setting, the instructors and learners, and its connection to the educational program. The second section outlines the learning objectives. The third lists all the elements necessary during the preparation phase, describing the educational method used for procedural simulation (such as demonstration, discovery, mastery learning, and deliberate practice). The fourth section addresses the simulation phase, detailing the behaviors the instructor aims to analyze, the embedded triggers, and the anticipated impact on simulation proceedings (natural feedback). This ensures maximum control over the learning experience. Finally, the fifth section compiles elements for post-simulation modifications to enhance future iterations. Conclusion: We trust that these guidelines will prove valuable to educators seeking to implement simulation-based education and contribute to the standardization of scenarios for healthcare students and professionals. This standardization aims to facilitate communication, comparison of practices and collaboration across different learning and healthcare institutions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2363006
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Education Online
Issue number1
Early online date6 Jun 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

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