Nineteenth-century cities were showcases for the industriousness, culture and success of their inhabitants. The new boulevards and monuments, theatres, museums and art galleries required audiences that extended beyond the confines of the cities themselves and, to that extent, their success was dependent upon the kind of publicity they attracted in the national and provincial media and the numbers who came to see and admire. Tourism also benefited the cultural economies of cities, both directly and indirectly. Some of the questions raised by the growth of contemporary urban tourism (Richards 1994: 347) apply to its nineteenth century predecessor: for example, how and why did a market develop? Was expansion a consequence of the extension of tourist practices beyond the social elites to other sectors of society, or was it a consequence of increased activity by those already participating? And, to what extend was an engagement with particular aspects of urban culture and the outcome of cultural shifts and changing interests among particular social groups? And finally, did these strategies adopted by particular cities succeed in encouraging and attracting visitors? These are all questions that a systematic survey of the subject needs to address, although the focus of this particular essay is, firstly, on the factors supporting the growth of urban tourism from 1860-1910, and secondly, on the relationship between tourism, the urban economy and the media and cultural industries which helped to make cities appear as attractive places.
|Title of host publication||Creative Urban Milieus: Historical Perspectives on Culture, Economy, and the City|
|Editors||Martina Hebler, Clemens Zimmerman|
|Place of Publication||Frankfurt & New York|
|Number of pages||380|
|Publication status||Published - 3 Jul 2009|