The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the potential key to meet the exponentially increasing demand of the mobile end users. The entire LTE network architecture and signal processing is carried out at the enhanced NodeB (eNB) level, hence the increased complexity and cost. Therefore, it is not efficient to deploy eNB for the purpose of extending the network coverage. As a solution, deployment of relay node (RN), with radio-over-fibre (RoF) acting as the interface between eNB and RN is proposed. Due to the high path loss and multipath fading, wireless interface would not be the ideal channel between eNB and RN. A detailed investigation is carried out by comparing the Rayleigh multipath fading channel with the optical fibre channel, where the latter achieved a ~31 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain. The distributed feedback laser (DFB) is selected as the direct modulated laser (DML) source, where the modulation method introduces a positive frequency chirp (PFC). The existing mathematical expression does not precisely explain on how the rate equations contribute to PFC. Therefore, an expression for PFC is proposed and derived from the carrier and photon densities of the rate equations. Focusing on theoretical development of DML based RoF system, a varying fast Fourier transform (FFT) scheme is introduced into LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) technology as an alternative design to the carrier aggregation. A range of FFT sizes are investigated with different levels of optical launch power (OLP), the optimum OLP has been defined to be within the range of ~-6 to 0 dBm, which is known as the intermixing region. It is found that FFT size-128 provides improved average system efficiency of ~54% and ~65% in comparison to FFT size-64 and FFT size-128, respectively, within the intermixing region. While fixing FFT size to 128, the investigation is diverted to the optimisation of optical modulators. The author revealed that the performance of dual electrode-Mach Zehnder modulator (DE-MZM) is superior to both DML scheme and single electrode (SE)-MZM, where DE-MZM achieved a transmission span of 88 km and 71 km for 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 64-QAM, respectively. At the initial experimental link design and optimisation stage, an optimum modulation region (OMR) is proposed at the optical modulation index (OMI) of 0.38, which resulted in an average error vector magnitude (EVM) of ~1.01% for a 10 km span. The EVM of ~1.01% is further improved by introducing the optimum OLP region at –2 dBm, where the observed average EVM trimmed to ~0.96%. There is no deviation found in the intermixing region by transmitting the LTE signal through a varying transmission span of 10 to 60 km, additionally, it was also revealed that the LTE RoF nonlinear threshold falls above the OLP of 6 dBm. The proposed system was further developed to accommodate 2×2 multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) transmission by utilising analogue frequency division multiplexing (FDM) technique. The studies procured that the resulting output quality of signal at 2 GHz and 2.6 GHz is almost identical with a twofold gain in the peak data rate and no occurrence of intermodulation (IMD). In order to emulate the complete LTE RoF solution, an experimental design of full duplex frequency division duplex (FDD) system with dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) architecture is proposed. It is found that channel spacing of 50 MHz between the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) introduces severe IMD distortion, where an adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) penalty of 14.10 dB is observed. Finally, a novel nonlinear compensation technique utilising a direct modulation based frequency dithering (DMFD) scheme is proposed. The LTE RoF system average SNR gain observed at OLP of 10 dBm for the 50 km transmission span is ~5.97 dB. External modulation based frequency dithering (EMFD) exhibits ~3 dB of average SNR gain over DMFD method.
|Publication status||In preparation - Feb 2013|