The immunopathogenesis of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis

M. Brown, S. O'Reilly

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

127 Citations (Scopus)


Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an idiopathic systemic autoimmune disease. It is characterized by a triad of hallmarks: immune dysfunction, fibrosis and vasculopathy. Immune dysfunction in SSc is characterized by the activation and recruitment of immune cells and the production of autoantibodies and cytokines. How immune abnormalities link the fibrosis and vasculopathy in SSc is poorly understood. A plethora of immune cell types are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of SSc, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, mast cells and macrophages. How these different cell types interact to contribute to SSc is complicated, and can involve cell‐to‐cell interactions and communication via cytokines, including transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β, interleukin (IL)‐6 and IL‐4. We will attempt to review significant and recent research demonstrating the importance of immune cell regulation in the immunopathogenesis of SSc with a particular focus on fibrosis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-321
Number of pages12
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Issue number3
Early online date10 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


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