Background - Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes the phenomenon of transient airway narrowing in association with physical activity. Although it may seem likely that EIB would have a detrimental impact on athletic performance, this has yet to be established. Objectives - The aim of this review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current status of knowledge regarding EIB and exercise performance and to highlight potential mechanisms by which performance may be compromised by EIB. Results - The remaining ten studies that met the initial criteria were included in this review; six evaluated the performance of physically active individuals with asthma and/or EIB while four assessed the effects of medication on performance in a comparable population. Conclusion - The evidence concludes that whilst it is reasonable to suspect that EIB does impact athletic performance, there is currently insufficient evidence to provide a definitive answer.