The Muscle Trade: The Use and Supply of Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs

Nicholas Gibbs*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Book/ReportBookpeer-review


The health and fitness industry has experienced a meteoric rise over the past two decades, yet its slick exterior conceals a darker side. Using ethnographic data from gyms, interviews, and social media platforms, this book investigates the growing consumption of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs), the motivations behind their use, and their role in masculine body image.

Addressing a gap in the literature, Nick Gibbs also interrogates both the offline and digital drug supply chains with important insights for IPED harm reduction practitioners, law makers and policy advisors.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBristol
PublisherBristol University Press
Number of pages202
ISBN (Electronic)9781529228038, 9781529228045
ISBN (Print)9781529227949
Publication statusPublished - 16 Nov 2023

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