The occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust and soils from public open spaces: Implications for human exposure

Joel Sánchez-Piñero, Samantha L. Bowerbank, Jorge Moreda-Piñeiro, Purificación López-Mahía, John R. Dean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Global concern exists regarding human exposure to organic pollutants derived from public open spaces and indoor dust. This study has evaluated the occurrence of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and bisphenol A (BPA). To achieve this, a new simple, efficient and fast multi-residue analytical method based on a fully automated pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and subsequent quantification by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was developed. The developed method was applied to indoor dust (12 sampling households) and soil derived from two public open spaces (POSs). Among all compounds studied, PAHs were the most ubiquitous contaminants detected in POS soils and indoor dust although some OPFRs and BPA were detected in lower concentrations. An assessment of the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was done and indicated a high potential cancer risk from the POS sites and some of the indoor dust sampled sites. However, key variables, such as the actual exposure duration, frequency of contact and indoor cleaning protocols will significantly reduce the potential risk. Finally, the ingestion of soils and indoor dust contaminated with OPFRs and BPA was investigated and noted in almost all cases to be below the USEPA reference doses.
Original languageEnglish
Article number115372
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume266
Issue numberPart 1
Early online date13 Aug 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020

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