Objective: To assess the relative validity and repeatability of a sixty-four-item FFQ for estimating dietary intake of Zn and its absorption modifiers in Saudi adults. In addition, we used the FFQ to investigate the effect of age and gender on these intakes.
Design: To assess validity, all participants completed the FFQ (FFQ1) and a 3 d food record. After 1 month, the FFQ was administered for a second time (FFQ2) to assess repeatability.
Setting: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Subjects: One hundred males and females aged 20-30 years and 60-70 years participated.
Results: Mean intakes of Zn and protein from FFQ1 were significantly higher than those from the food record while there were no detectable differences between tools for measurement of phytic acid intake. Estimated intakes of Zn, protein and phytate by both approaches were strongly correlated (P<0·001). Bland-Altman analysis showed for protein that the difference in intake as measured by the two methods was similar across the range of intakes while for Zn and phytic acid, the difference increased with increasing mean intake. Zn and protein intakes from FFQ1 and FFQ2 were highly correlated (r>0·68, P<0·001) but were significantly lower at the second measurement (FFQ2). Older adults consumed less Zn and protein compared with young adults. Intakes of all dietary components were lower in females than in males.
Conclusions: The FFQ developed and tested in the current study demonstrated reasonable relative validity and high repeatability and was capable of detecting differences in intakes between age and gender groups.