Background: Previous research has suggested that exclusive breastfeeding is likely to be predicted by social-cognitive variables and fear. However, there is little research assessing the role of regret and self-conscious emotions (e.g., pride and guilt) in promoting exclusive breastfeeding. Research Aim: The primary aim of this research was to determine whether social-cognitive variables, fear, regret, and self-conscious emotions predict exclusive breastfeeding duration. The secondary aim of this research was to assess whether these factors predict infant feeding choice (i.e., exclusively breastfed, combination fed, or generally formula-fed). Methods: In this non-experimental one-group self-report survey, 375 mothers rated social-cognitive variables toward breastfeeding (attitude, subjective norm, perceived control and self-efficacy), their fear towards inadequate nutrition from breastfeeding and breastfeeding damaging their physical appearance, and the extent to which mothers may feel pride towards breastfeeding, and negative self-conscious emotions (guilt and shame) and regret for not breastfeeding their infant. Results: Exclusive breastfeeding duration was positively predicted by self-efficacy, pride, and regret, but negatively predicted by the fear towards inadequate nutrition. We also found that in contrast to exclusive breastfeeding, generally formula feeding an infant was associated with lower self-efficacy, pride, regret, but higher subjective norm and fear towards inadequate nutrition through breastfeeding. Conclusions: We argue that it is important to consider the role of self-conscious emotions and regret on exclusive breastfeeding.