Objective - This study determined the role of social–cognitive and affective factors in promoting testicular self-examination. Methods - Male participants (N = 115) rated their perceptions of testicular cancer, social–cognitive variables (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control), and their emotions towards testicular cancer (anxiety and shame) and testicular self-examination (anticipated regret and relief). Participants also stated whether or not they had performed a testicular self-examination within the last month. Results - Perceived control and anticipated relief positively predicted testicular self-examination within the last month. Both these factors also positively predicted the intention to self-examine in the future. Intention was also positively predicted by attitude and negatively predicted by shame. Conclusions - These results highlight the importance of social–cognitive and emotional factors in promoting health screening. Targeting these factors might improve the effectiveness of testicular self-examination interventions.