The Usage of ANN for Regression Analysis in Visible Light Positioning Systems

Neha Chaudhary*, Othman Isam Younus, Luis Nero Alves, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Stanislav Zvanovec

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In this paper, we study the design aspects of an indoor visible light positioning (VLP) system that uses an artificial neural network (ANN) for positioning estimation by considering a multipath channel. Previous results usually rely on the simplistic line of sight model with limited validity. The study considers the influence of noise as a performance indicator for the comparison between different design approaches. Three different ANN algorithms are considered, including Levenberg−Marquardt, Bayesian regularization, and scaled conjugate gradient algorithms, to minimize the positioning error (εp) in the VLP system. The ANN design is optimized based on the number of neurons in the hidden layers, the number of training epochs, and the size of the training set. It is shown that, the ANN with Bayesian regularization outperforms the traditional received signal strength (RSS) technique using the non-linear least square estimation for all values of signal to noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, in the inner region, which includes the area of the receiving plane within the transmitters, the positioning accuracy is improved by 43, 55, and 50% for the SNR of 10, 20, and 30 dB, respectively. In the outer region, which is the remaining area within the room, the positioning accuracy is improved by 57, 32, and 6% for the SNR of 10, 20, and 30 dB, respectively. Moreover, we also analyze the impact of different training dataset sizes in ANN, and we show that it is possible to achieve a minimum εp of 2 cm for 30 dB of SNR using a random selection scheme. Finally, it is observed that εp is low even for lower values of SNR, i.e., εp values are 2, 11, and 44 cm for the SNR of 30, 20, and 10 dB, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2879
Number of pages21
JournalSensors
Volume22
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Apr 2022

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