Thermal runaway detection of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery under quasi-static loading conditions

Muhammad Sheikh*, Ahmed Elmarakbi, Mustafa Elkady

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


This paper focuses on state of charge (SOC) dependent mechanical failure analysis of 18650 lithium-ion battery to detect signs of thermal runaway. Quasi-static loading conditions are used with four test protocols (Rod, Circular punch, three-point bend and flat plate) to analyse the propagation of mechanical failures and failure induced temperature changes. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to model single battery cell with the concentric layered formation which represents a complete cell. The numerical simulation model is designed with solid element formation where stell casing and all layers followed the same formation, and fine mesh is used for all layers. Experimental work is also performed to analyse deformation of 18650 lithium-ion cell. The numerical simulation model is validated with experimental results. Deformation of cell mimics thermal runaway and various thermal runaway detection strategies are employed in this work including, force-displacement, voltage-temperature, stress-strain, SOC dependency and separator failure. Results show that cell can undergo severe conditions even with no fracture or rupture, these conditions may slow to develop but they can lead to catastrophic failures. The numerical simulation technique is proved to be useful in predicting initial battery failures, and results are in good correlation with the experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-70
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Early online date14 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


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