The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course responses of strength, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle thickness (MT), circumference (CIRC), and ultrasonography echo intensity (EI) after a traditional hypertrophic isoinertial resistance training session in young women. Ten (22.0 ± 3.2 years) healthy, untrained volunteers participated in the study. The resistance exercise session consisted of 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of the dominant arm elbow flexors. Maximum isometric elbow flexion peak torque (PT) at 90°, MT, and EI were recorded for both arms at baseline (PRE), immediately after exercise (0 hours) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Comparisons were made using a 2 × 5 mixed factor analysis of variance. There was a significant (p < 0.05) loss in PT and increase in MT at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. In contrast, EI increased only after 24, 48, and 72 hours, not at 0 hours. There were no significant changes in PT, DOMS, MT, and EI in the nondominant (control) arm after the exercise protocol. Our data suggest that after 4 sets of 80% of 1RM of unilateral elbow flexion resistance exercise, nonresistance trained women need >72 hours to fully recover muscle strength, MT, CIRC, and EI. Furthermore, the EI appears to be a sensitive and reliable method to assess MD.