Toilet training interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review

Megan Simon*, Sarah Wilkes-Gillan, Yu-Wei Ryan Chen, Reinie Cordier, Alycia Cantrill, Lauren Parsons, Jia Jun Phua

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background
Children on the autism spectrum can often reach independence in toileting at a later age than nonautistic children, which impacts their health outcomes, independence and social participation. This study aimed to systematically review evidence-based toilet training interventions for children on the autism spectrum, and assess the quality of existing evidence.

Method
Guided by the PRISMA statement, a search of scholarly databases was conducted and the study characteristics, methodological quality and intervention components of included studies were examined.

Results
This systematic review identified 26 studies that evaluated toilet training interventions for children on the autism spectrum. Results identified that while Azrin and Foxx’s (1971) Rapid Toilet Training approach is most widely researched for children on the autism spectrum, investigating the effects of current toilet training approaches is limited by small sample sizes, low-level study designs and variable methods of reporting outcomes.

Conclusion
Greater consideration of parent-child communication, children’s developmental and toileting skill level may facilitate development of toileting approaches that better meet the needs of children on the autism spectrum and their families.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102049
Number of pages23
JournalResearch in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Volume99
Early online date18 Oct 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022

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