Toll-like receptors in ocular surface disease

Rachel Redfern, Alison McDermott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)


The ability of the ocular surface to mount an immune response is in part attributed to a family of proteins called toll-like receptors (TLRs). The latter are evolutionary conserved receptors that recognize and respond to various microbes and endogenous ligands. In addition to their recognition function, TLR activation triggers a complex signal transduction cascade that induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, thus initiating innate and adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptor expression at the ocular surface is modulated during infection (e.g. Herpes simplex, bacterial keratitis and fungal keratitis) as well as during various inflammatory conditions (allergic conjunctivitis and dry-eye syndrome). Here recent findings regarding TLR expression and their involvement in various ocular surface diseases are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-687
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Issue number6
Early online date24 Mar 2010
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2010


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