In 1591, a Moroccan army sent by Sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr conquer the city of Timbuktu. This army was composed of renegades, Andalusian refugees, and of Moroccan soldiers from the Dra'a and Fez. These men and their descendants established a new order in the city, modifying its social structure and its architecture. Timbuktu was then at the crossroads of migrations: a terminus for some, a point of departure for others, fleeing the Moroccan invasion. The capture of Timbuktu was the result and the starting point of profound changes in Africa in the modern era.