A system which represents knowledge is normally referred to as a knowledge based system (KBS). This article focuses on surveying publications related to knowledge base modelling and manipulation technologies, between the years 2000–2015. A total of 185 articles excluding the subject descriptive articles which are mentioned in the introductory parts, were evaluated in this survey. The main aim of this study is to identify different knowledge base modelling and manipulation techniques based on 4 categories; 1) linguistic knowledge base; 2) expert knowledge base; 3) ontology and 4) cognitive knowledge base. This led to the proposition of 8 research questions, which focused on the different categories of knowledge base modelling technologies, their underlying theories, knowledge representation technique, knowledge acquisition technique, challenges, applications, development tools and development languages. A part of the findings from this survey is the high dependence of linguistic knowledge base, expert knowledge base and ontology on volatile expert knowledge. A promising technique for knowledge-based business management and other knowledge related applications is also discussed.