Two-Stage Stochastic-based Scheduling of Multi-Energy Microgrids with Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Charging Stations, considering transactions through pool market and bilateral contracts

Mohammad Nasir, Ahmad Rezaee Jordehi*, Marcos Tostado-Véliz , Seyed Amir Mansouri, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino, Mousa Marzband

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


In order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency, sustainable energy systems such as multi-energy microgrids (MEMGs) with the high penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) and satisfying different energy needs of consumers have received significant attention in recent years. MEMGs, by relying on renewable resources and energy storage systems along with energy conversion systems, play an essential role in sustainability of energy supply. However, renewable energies are uncertain due to the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. Thus, optimal operation of the MEMGs with the consideration of the uncertainties of RES is necessary to achieve sustainability. In this paper, risk constrained scheduling of a MEMG is carried out with the presence of the PV, wind, biomass, electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen vehicles (HVs) charging stations, combined heat and power (CHP), boiler, hydrogen electrolyzer (HE), cryptocurrency miners (CMs), electrical, thermal and hydrogen storage systems, responsive demands. From the trading and business model side, the proposed MEMG optimized operation relies on bilateral contracts between producers and consumers and pool electricity markets. A two-stage stochastic programming method is used for considering the uncertainties of electrical, thermal and hydrogen demands, EV and HV charging stations load, CM load, PV and wind power, and the price of electricity purchased from the pool market. The proposed mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is solved using the CPLEX solver in GAMS which guarantees to achieve a globally optimal solution. The results show that due to the certain prices of bilateral contracts, the possibility of transaction by bilateral contracts decreases the risk metric CVaR by 50.42%. The simulation results demonstrate that risk of high operation costs while considering flexibility sources, such as storages and demand response (DR) programs, is decreased by 5.45% and 4.6%, respectively. As far as operation costs are concerned, results reveal that using renewable resources decreases operation costs by 34.47%. Moreover, the operation cost is reduced by 5.94% and 4.57% in the presence of storage units and DR programs, respectively. In the same way, storages and DR programs decrease cost of purchased electricity by 13.47% and 14.46%, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23459-23497
Number of pages39
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number61
Early online date31 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2023

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