A challenge for optical fiber biosensor is to achieve ultrahigh sensitivity with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the spectrum. To address this challenge, an ultrahigh-sensitivity microfiber interferometer fiber ring laser (FRL) biosensor is proposed and investigated for Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) detection. The fiber biosensor is composed of a singlemode- tapered no core-singlemode (STNS) fiber configuration, which is functionalized with the anti-L. monocytogenes antibodies. An Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier is applied to the sensor to excite laser and thus reduce the FWHM of the spectrum, which significantly improved the limit of detection (LoD). The proposed STNS FRL biosensor has excellent reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity for L. monocytogenes. The developed STNS FRL biosensor can directly detect L. monocytogenes cells with LoD as low as 1.0 cell/mL, indicating the capability for detecting single cell of L. monocytogenes. Real lettuce and milk samples have been tested and test result in lettuce and milk samples has deviations within ±30% from that of Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for L. monocytogenes concentrations vary from 101 to 103 cells/mL(g). The developed STNS FRL biosensor has ultrahigh sensitivity, good stability, reproducibility, and specificity, which has potential applications in diseases/medical diagnostics.