Widespread use of white light-emitting diodes and ubiquitous smart devices offer the opportunity to establish VLC, which has become a hot research topic based on the growing number of publications over the last decade. Camera-based VLC, namely OCC, provides many unique features when compared to a single-photodiode-based system, such as the ability to separate incident light in the spatial and color domains. OCC technology represents a promising approach to utilize the benefits of VLC in beyond-5G scenarios and is one of the key technologies of the Internet of Things. Establishing a long communication channel in OCC, as well as non-flickering illumination by using low-frame-rate camera detectors, requires special modulation schemes. This article provides an overview of the principles of three categories of modulation schemes for OCC systems using a low-frame-rate camera detector. In addition, a series of undersampled modulation schemes are proposed and discussed to achieve flicker-free OCC with higher spectral efficiency. In addition, framing structures are designed to solve problems occurring in OCC systems using particular modulation schemes. To evaluate the performance of these modulation schemes, measured bit error rate values are shown. Finally, challenges in the implementation of OCC systems are also outlined.