The present study aims to investigate the dose dependent effects of consuming diets enriched in flavonoid-rich and flavonoid-poor fruits and vegetables on the urine metabolome of adults who had a ≥1.5 fold increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A single-blind, dose-dependent, parallel randomized controlled dietary intervention was conducted where volunteers (n = 126) were randomly assigned to one of three diets: high flavonoid diet, low flavonoid diet or habitual diet as a control for 18 weeks. High resolution LC–MS untargeted metabolomics with minimal sample cleanup was performed using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Putative biomarkers which characterize diets with high and low flavonoid content were selected by state-of-the-art data analysis strategies and identified by HR-MS and HR-MS/MS assays. Discrimination between diets was observed by application of two linear mixed models: one including a diet-time interaction effect and the second containing only a time effect. Valerolactones, phenolic acids and their derivatives were among sixteen biomarkers related to the high flavonoid dietary exposure. Four biomarkers related to the low flavonoid diet belonged to the family of phenolic acids. For the first time abscisic acid glucuronide was reported as a biomarker after a dietary intake, however its origins have to be examined by future hypothesis driven experiments using a more targeted approach. This metabolomic analysis has identified a number of dose dependent urinary biomarkers (i.e. proline betaine or iberin-N-acetyl cysteine), which can be used in future observation and intervention studies to assess flavonoids and non-flavonoid phenolic intakes and compliance to fruit and vegetable intervention.