Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, and pesticides. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary PAH and adult digestive conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, self-reported health conditions, and urinary PAH. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of 5560 American adults aged 20–80 and included in the statistical analysis, urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene was significantly associated with celiac disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.14–2.26, P = 0.009). In addition, urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.02–1.78, P = 0.038), 3-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.07–1.70, P = 0.015), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.08–2.03, P = 0.017), 1-hydroxypyrene (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.05–1.77, P = 0.023), and 2-hydroxynapthalene (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.00–1.58, P = 0.054) were significantly associated with kidney stones, although not necessarily failing kidney. There were no statistically significant associations observed in the relationship of urinary PAH and liver problems, although higher levels of PAHs were observed. Urinary PAHs are associated with adult digestive conditions, although the causality cannot be established. From the research perspective, longitudinal monitoring from observational studies and experimental research understanding mechanism would be suggested. Regulation of minimizing PAHs exposure might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies.