Validation of the Quality of Dying and Death Questionnaire among the Chinese populations

Ying Wang, Mandong Liu*, Wallace Chi Ho Chan, Jing Zhou, Iris Chi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)



This study reports the evaluation of the original 31-item Quality of Dying and Death Questionnaire (QODD) using a sample of caregivers of recently deceased older adults in China, and the validation of a shortened version (QODD-C) derived from the original scale. 


The translation was performed using a forward and back method. The full scale was tested with 212 caregivers of decedents in four regions of China. Confirmatory factor analysis tested the model fit between the full Chinese version and the original conceptual model and generated the QODD-C. The psychometric analysis was performed to evaluate the QODD-C's internal consistency, content validity, construct validity, and discriminant validity. 


A five-domain, 18-item QODD-C was identified with excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.933; split-half Pearson's value = 0.855). The QODD-C total score was significantly associated with constructs related to five domains. The caregiver's relationship with the decedent, the decedent's age at death, death reason, and death place was significantly associated with the QODD-C total score. 

Significance of results 

The QODD-C is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the quality of dying and death among the Chinese populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)694-701
Number of pages8
JournalPalliative and Supportive Care
Issue number6
Early online date31 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

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