Vehicle to vehicle compatibility: Theoretical formulation, numerical analysis, and optimization

Ahmed M. Elmarakbi*, Jean W. Zu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The goal of this paper is to present the numerical results of vehicle compatibility in frontal collision. Since a slight softer and longer crumple zone is required for heavier vehicles to decrease their aggressivity towards smaller vehicles involved in head-on collision, a smart vehicle structure is proposed to support the function of the existing vehicle structure. The proposed structure consists of two independently controlled hydraulic cylinders integrated with the front-end longitudinal members. The mathematical models of both standard-standard vehicles and smart-standard vehicles in head-on collision are developed and numerically solved. Three injury risk criteria are considered in this paper to interpret the simulation results; maximum deformation suffered by the front-end structure, maximum deceleration pulse sustained by the occupant, and the velocity change during the collision. It is proven from numerical simulations that the smart vehicle decreases the aggressivity of the heavier vehicle and brings lower intrusions and decelerations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-374
Number of pages20
JournalTransactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering
Issue number2B
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes


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