Void Avoidance Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Rogaia Mhemed, Frank Comeau*, William Phillips, Nauman Aslam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
77 Downloads (Pure)


Much attention has been focused lately on the Opportunistic Routing technique (OR) that can overcome the restrictions of the harsh underwater environment and the unique structures of the Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs). OR enhances the performance of the UWSNs in both packet delivery ratio and energy saving. In our work; we propose a new routing protocol; called Energy Efficient Depth-based Opportunistic Routing with Void Avoidance for UWSNs (EEDOR-VA), to address the void area problem. EEDOR-VA is a reactive OR protocol that uses a hop count discovery procedure to update the hop count of the intermediate nodes between the source and the destination to form forwarding sets. EEDOR-VA forwarding sets can be selected with less or greater depth than the packet holder (i.e., source or intermediate node). It efficiently prevents all void/trapped nodes from being part of the forwarding sets and data transmission procedure; thereby saving network resources and delivering data packets at the lowest possible cost. The results of our extensive simulation study indicate that the EEDOR-VA protocol outperforms other protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption
Original languageEnglish
Article number1942
Number of pages30
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2021


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