In areas under intensive livestock farming and with high application rates of animal manure, inorganic and organic phosphorus (P) may be leached from soils. Since the contribution of these P compounds to P leaching may differ, it is important to determine the speciation of P in these soils. We determined the effect of various fertilization regimes on the P speciation in NaOH-Na2EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and water extracts of acidic sandy soil samples from the top 5 cm of grassland with wet chemical analysis and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These soils had been treated for a period of 11 years with no fertilizer (control), N (no P application), N-P-K, or different animal manures. Inorganic P was highly elevated in the NaOH-Na2EDTA extracts of the soils amended with N-P-K or animal manures, while organic P increased only in the soil treated with pig slurry. Water-extractable P showed a similar trend. As indicated by 31P NMR, orthophosphate monoesters were the main organic P compounds in all soils. Our results suggest that long-term applications of large amounts of P fertilizer and animal manures caused an accumulation of inorganic P, resulting in an increase of the potential risk related to mobilization of inorganic P in the top 5 cm of these soils.