Where can I get free? Everyday Bordering, Everyday Incarceration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle



Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-62
JournalTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers
Issue number1
Early online date11 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019
Publication type

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper draws upon the growing body of geographical literature on carceral spaces and carcerality to explore alternatives sites of incarceration in everyday life and also to look beyond the state as a carceral actor and agent. In particular, it focuses upon ‘unfreedom’ and the punitive elements of UK immigration controls from the perspective of those who have left violent domestic situations and in doing so have been forced to apply for leave to remain in the country. The paper highlights the ways in which in enacting the spatial violence of immigration policies and controls everyday actors, such as sales assistants and landlords, become agents in the ‘continuum of unfreedoms’. The discussion, therefore, seeks to define the carcer and carcerality beyond the institution as not merely linked to institutional carceralities but as existing in and of itself in and around us in everyday life. In particular, it is argued that the focus on institution as carcer is gendered, as women are more likely to be incarcerated in everyday spaces. The paper also demonstrates the complex roles of non and quasi-state actors in shaping the ‘unfreedoms’ of everyday life for those seeking leave to remain in the UK as a result of domestic violence.