Whispering gallery mode micro resonators for multi-parameter sensing applications

Arun Kumar Mallik, Gerald Farrell, Manjusha Ramakrishnan, Vishnu Kavangal, Dejun Liu, Qiang Wu, Yuliya Semenova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
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A novel fiber optic sensing configuration for simultaneously measuring ammonia vapor (NH3) concentration and relative humidity (RH) in air is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system comprised two silica whispering gallery mode (WGM) microsphere resonators coated with different polymer layers. One of the microspheres was dip-coated with sol gel silica polymer and another with a 0.5 % wt./vol. agarose hydrogel. WGMs in both microspheres were excited simultaneously by evanescent coupling using a single adiabatic fiber taper. The optical properties of both coating layers change due to their exposure to ammonia and water molecules in the surrounding atmosphere, resulting in the spectral shifts of the WGM resonances relevant to each of the microspheres. By measuring the relevant WGMs spectral shifts, NH3 concentration in air and RH can be determined simultaneously. The experimentally demonstrated sensitivity of the proposed sensor array to ammonia was estimated as 19.07 pm/ppm (NH3 molecules in air) and its sensitivity to relative humidity as 1.07 pm/% RH. Detailed studies of the coatings cross-sensitivity and temperature dependence are also presented. The proposed sensor array is compact, highly sensitive and potentially low cost.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31829-31838
JournalOptics Express
Issue number24
Early online date19 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2018


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