There is scarcity of known gene variants of hearing impairment (HI) in African populations. This knowledge deficit is ultimately affecting the development of genetic diagnoses. We used whole exome sequencing to investigate gene variants, pathways of interactive genes and the fractions of ancestral overderived alleles for 159 HI genes among 18 Cameroonian patients with non-syndromic HI (NSHI) and 129 ethnically matched controls. Pathogenic and likely pathogenic (PLP) variants were found in MYO3A, MYO15A and COL9A3, with a resolution rate of 50% (9/18 patients). The study identified significant genetic differentiation in novel population-specific gene variants at FOXD4L2, DHRS2L6, RPL3L and VTN between HI patients and controls. These gene variants are found in functional/co-expressed interactive networks with other known HI-associated genes and in the same pathways with VTN being a hub protein, that is, focal adhesion pathway and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton (P-values <0.05). The results suggest that these novel population-specific gene variants are possible modifiers of the HI phenotypes. We found a high proportion of ancestral allele versus derived at low HI patients-specific minor allele frequency in the range of 0.0–0.1. The results showed a relatively low pickup rate of PLP variants in known genes in this group of Cameroonian patients with NSHI. In addition, findings may signal an evolutionary enrichment of some variants of HI genes in patients, as the result of polygenic adaptation, and suggest the possibility of multigenic influence on the phenotype of congenital HI, which deserves further investigations.