The sport of windsurfing requires good physical condition and skills. Windsurfers use pumping for propulsion during sailing, a demanding endurance maneuver in which the athlete pulls the sail rhythmically so that it acts as a wing, thus providing the board with additional forward motion especially in light and moderate wind conditions. The physiological demands in windsurfing, however, can vary greatly as depend on weather conditions (wind velocity), the intensity - duration of the effort, and the type of sailboard. Several physiological determinants, nutrition, and training methods can influence the overall performance of windsurfers. This article provides an overview of windsurfing physiology including the physiological responses during race and the determinants of windsurfing performance, which are also related to different wind conditions. Additionally, it indicates training methods and nutritional information for competitive windsurfers.