Wireless pressure insoles for measuring ground reaction forces and trajectories of the centre of pressure during functional activities

T. Cudejko, K. Button, M. Al-Amri*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Wireless pressure insoles may enable the assessment of movement biomechanics in a real-world setting, and thus play an important role in the recommendation of clinical management, but they are not yet a gold standard due to the unknown accuracy and reliability with respect to different functional activities. Here, we compare novel wireless pressure insoles with force plates and examine the test–retest reliability of the insoles for measuring vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) and trajectories of the center of pressure (COP). In this observational study, healthy adults underwent two data collection sessions during one day. The Bland–Altman analysis was used to compare the outcomes measured with the two instruments during squats, jumps, and the sit-to-stand test. Test–retest reliability was assessed by the interclass correlation coefficient and the standard error of measurement for the outcomes during squats, jumps, walking, and stair ambulation. Trajectories of the COP in the anterior–posterior direction were comparable between the two systems during all activities. The insoles consistently measured shorter trajectories of the COP in the medial–lateral direction (except jumps) and lower vGRFs than the force plates. Test–retest reliability of the insoles was fair to high or excellent for all outcomes during all activities. In conclusion, the insoles provide reliable measures of vGRFs and trajectories of the COP during multiple functional activities in healthy adults. Although the insoles do not produce identical results to the force plate, the qualitative similarity and consistency between the two systems confirm the insoles can be used to measure these outcomes, based on the purpose and accuracy required.
Original languageEnglish
Article number14946
Number of pages12
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sep 2023

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